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What is this?
The body's antibodies have a normal function to selectively attack external infectious agents, remaining inactive on all other non-pathological elements, as well as on the body's own elements
In autoimmune diseases, this selectivity of the antibodies is lost. The result is that the body attacks itself and its organs.
They are chronic diseases, with a hereditary predisposition, which can have varied expression and severity. 80-100 different ones are mentioned many times, they appear in combination with each other. Their control often requires multiple specialized and personalized analyses.
Autoantibodies are usually seen in people with a family history of autoimmune after a virus or after long-term contact with toxic chemicals or prolonged – severe stress.
Their appearance can be organ-specific (e.g. thyroid) or systemic in all organs.
The most common are:
Generally, autoimmune diseases can cause, among other symptoms:
The early correct diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune diseases prevent their degenerative actions and the possible appearance of additional diseases.
A. Systematically autoimmune diseases (they affect the whole body):
Autoimmunes show similar signs to each other. Certainly, most of the time autoimmune diseases appear in a combination of many different ones at the same time.
The main tests, which are used to detect and monitor their progress, are most often the set of the following, in fact, there are more specialized ones that are used on a case-by-case basis:
Complete blood test (CBC), ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP): It is checked if there is an indication of an inflammatory reaction that may have come from a systemic autoimmune disease, as well as the balance of the hemodynamic-immune system.
Components of complement C3, C4: Detection of long-term activation - exhaustion of the immune system, caused by the presence of autoimmune diseases.
Uric acid (UA), transaminases (ALT /AST), CK, LDH: Is checked a possible burden on ligaments, liver, muscles, and the hematopoietic system.
General urine test: Check for the possible effects on kidney function mainly by detecting albumin.
Rheumatoid factor (RF) and anticitrullinated antibodies (anti-CCP): They are used in the detection of rheumatoid arthritis and Sjögren's syndrome.
Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and ANA profile: They are used to detect systemic lupus erythematosus, polymyositis, etc.
Anticardiolipins (αCL IgG, αCL IgA, αCL IgM): Detection of phospholipid syndrome (especially recommended in venous or arterial thrombosis – recurrent miscarriages).
Specialized analyzes are carried out to detect the respective disease. The most common features are:
Peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO), anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg), TSH receptor autoantibodies (TRAb): Detection and monitoring of autoimmune thyroiditis Hashimoto / Graves.
Anti-smooth muscle fiber antibodies (ASMA): Differential diagnosis of chronic active autoimmune hepatitis.
Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA): used to diagnose primary biliary cirrhosis.
IMAGING PREVENTION CHECKS
They are used on a case-by-case basis based on indications, and personal - family history.
Nowadays, ultrasound checks are the most common due to simplicity and safety in terms of technique:
No preparation or diet is required. Blood sampling can be done at any time of the day.
Blood sampling can be done at any time of the day (the laboratory's working hours are 7.30 a.m. – 7.30 p.m.).
Information selected - indicative with sources: Interpretation of Diagnostic Tests - J.Wallach and https://labtestsonline.org
The choice and explanation of the use of the analysis is the exclusive responsibility of your doctor
Edited by : Ioannis Grattisia Head of Laboratory / MSc Clinical Biochemistry - Molecular Biology
2022 - 2023
Diagnostic: Director Biochemist I. Gratsia - Biopathologist I. Katsavochristos / M. Kolokouri - Radiologist S. Alagiannis
Doctors: General Practitioner X. Chrysanthaki - Endocrinologist E. Typhoxylou – Cardiologist A. Castanas - Neurologist C. Karagiorgis - Urologist K. Psyllias - Pulmonologist Zafiria Barbaressou
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