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Autoimmune Diseases

What is this?

The body's antibodies have a normal function to selectively attack external infectious agents, remaining inactive on all other non-pathological elements, as well as on the body's own elements

Check Up Medicus Diagnostic Center Athens. Systemic - organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Blood tests and ultrasound.

In autoimmune diseases, this selectivity of the antibodies is lost. The result is that the body attacks itself and its organs.

They are chronic diseases, with a hereditary predisposition, which can have varied expression and severity. 80-100 different ones are mentioned many times, they appear in combination with each other. Their control often requires multiple specialized and personalized analyses.


Autoantibodies are usually seen in people with a family history of autoimmune after a virus or after long-term contact with toxic chemicals or prolonged – severe stress.

Their appearance can be organ-specific (e.g. thyroid) or systemic in all organs.

The most common are:

  1. Antiphospholipid syndrome
  2. Autoimmune hepatitis
  3. Type I diabetes
  4. Rheumatoid arthritis
  5. Sarcoidosis
  6. Scleroderma
  7. Systemic lupus erythematosus
  8. Hashimoto thyroiditis
  9. Graves
  10. Sjogren

Generally, autoimmune diseases can cause, among other symptoms:

  1. Fatigue, inability to concentrate - vision, food intolerances, weight disorders
  2. Pain in joints - muscles - gastrointestinal, local, or generalized
  3. Skin discolorations – inflammations, changes in nails – scalp, fevers
  4. Recurrent pregnancies, infertility
  5. High inflammation markers, high sugar, abnormal findings in urine

The early correct diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune diseases prevent their degenerative actions and the possible appearance of additional diseases.


A. Systematically autoimmune diseases (they affect the whole body):

Autoimmunes show similar signs to each other. Certainly, most of the time autoimmune diseases appear in a combination of many different ones at the same time.

The main tests, which are used to detect and monitor their progress, are most often the set of the following, in fact, there are more specialized ones that are used on a case-by-case basis:

Complete blood test (CBC), ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP): It is checked if there is an indication of an inflammatory reaction that may have come from a systemic autoimmune disease, as well as the balance of the hemodynamic-immune system.

Components of complement C3, C4: Detection of long-term activation - exhaustion of the immune system, caused by the presence of autoimmune diseases.

Uric acid (UA), transaminases (ALT /AST), CK, LDH: Is checked a possible burden on ligaments, liver, muscles, and the hematopoietic system.

General urine test: Check for the possible effects on kidney function mainly by detecting albumin.

Rheumatoid factor (RF) and anticitrullinated antibodies (anti-CCP): They are used in the detection of rheumatoid arthritis and Sjögren's syndrome.

Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and ANA profile: They are used to detect systemic lupus erythematosus, polymyositis, etc.

Anticardiolipins (αCL IgG, αCL IgA, αCL IgM): Detection of phospholipid syndrome (especially recommended in venous or arterial thrombosis – recurrent miscarriages).

Β. Organ-specific autoimmune diseases

Specialized analyzes are carried out to detect the respective disease. The most common features are:

Peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO), anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg), TSH receptor autoantibodies (TRAb): Detection and monitoring of autoimmune thyroiditis Hashimoto / Graves.

Anti-smooth muscle fiber antibodies (ASMA): Differential diagnosis of chronic active autoimmune hepatitis.

Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA): used to diagnose primary biliary cirrhosis.


They are used on a case-by-case basis based on indications, and personal - family history.

Nowadays, ultrasound checks are the most common due to simplicity and safety in terms of technique:

  1. Thyroid ultrasound
  2. Upper-lower abdominal ultrasound (liver-kidney-spleen)


A simple blood test is required for laboratory testing.

No preparation or diet is required. Blood sampling can be done at any time of the day.

Blood sampling can be done at any time of the day (the laboratory's working hours are 7.30 a.m. – 7.30 p.m.).

  1. Results are given within 2 days
  2. We recommended sending the results by email for a faster receipt


  1. The individual tests are prescribed and a fee applies according to the referral
  2. NOT prescribed: ANA profile, TRAb


  1. Basic test (general blood test, TKE, CRP, C3, C4, uric acid, transaminases, CK, LDH, general urine test, RF, ANA) 77.25 euros (initial 103 euros).
  2. PER profile 80 euros.

Information selected - indicative with sources: Interpretation of Diagnostic Tests - J.Wallach and

The choice and explanation of the use of the analysis is the exclusive responsibility of your doctor

Edited by : Ioannis Grattisia Head of Laboratory / MSc Clinical Biochemistry - Molecular Biology

2022 - 2023

Biopathology Diagnostic Laboratory | Microbiological | Molecular | DNA | Ultrasonic | EOPYY – Clinic

Diagnostic: Director Biochemist I. Gratsia - Biopathologist I. Katsavochristos / M. Kolokouri - Radiologist S. Alagiannis

Doctors: General Practitioner X. Chrysanthaki - Endocrinologist E. Typhoxylou – Cardiologist A. Castanas - Neurologist C. Karagiorgis - Urologist K. Psyllias - Pulmonologist Zafiria Barbaressou

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