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Allergies – Eating Disorders – Food Intolerance Vitamins & Trace Elements


Vitamins and trace elements are functional elements in the regulation of metabolism and essential functions of the body. Taking them nutritionally is necessary as they are elements that the body can not synthesize. Their levels must be within strict limits so as to avoid both deficiencies and toxic loads.



It is more common to find inadequate levels of vitamins and trace elements due to:

  • poor diet – undernutrition by special – extreme diets – oligophagy
  • food degraded (as a result of intensified cultivation)
  • malabsorption of gastrointestinal problems – taking medicines
  • increased catabolism – losses from disease
  • of particular physical strain – smoking


The lack of vitamins and trace elements often appears with indications such as:

  • psychosomatic instability, sense of weakness, limited spiritual functions.
  • increased frequency of infections, degradation of nail and scalp skin quality, bowel disorders
  • the occurrence of serious diseases (neurocephalitis, neoplasias, etc.)


Determination of levels of vitamins and trace elements in the blood is necessary to:

  • in cases of low levels, to identify and estimate possible dangerous etiologies
  • to provide the appropriate prophylactic or therapeutic supplements, at appropriate dosages and treatment times.
  • in cases where they are taken to avoid high toxic levels of vitamins and trace elements with correspondingly serious problems.

The analyzes used for the profile of vitamin levels are:

  1. Vitamin A (Retinol)
  2. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
  3. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
  4. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxalphosphate)
  5. Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid) Growth Factor – Neuroprotection – Wellness
  6. Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Neuroprotection – Cardiovascular and Anticancer Protection
  7. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
  8. Vitamin E (Tocopherol)
  9. Vitamin D3 – 25 (OH) (bone and parathyroid health – prostate-specific anticancer adjuvant)
  10. Vitamin D total


The analyzes of the main trace elements are:

  1. Calcium
  2. Phosphorus
  3. Magnesium (wellness – muscle strengthening)
  4. Zinc (immune-regulation of skin and hair)
  5. Selenium (antioxidant – immune-anti-cancer regulation)


The sodium, potassium, chlorine electrolytes can theoretically be included in the trace elements. They are screened along with basic metabolic key examinations.



Information selected from :

  • Interpretation of Diagnostic Tests – J.Wallach

The exact choice of tests required, is under the responsibility of your treating physician

Editor: I. Gratsias  Lab Director / Clinical Biochemist

Last Update May 2019

Medical Tests performed with analytical systems and reagents



Recomendations -preparation for morning blood sampling :
  • Should have a mandatory meal previous night.
  • Last meal should be up to 11-12 hours before blood collection.
  • Evening meal prefered to have the least possible animal fat.
  • In the morning should not have any lunch. Coffe without sugar and water are free.
For urine collection:
  • First urination sample is preferable
  • Prior urination, a local wash with plenty of water, no soap.


  • Results are given within 2-3 hours.



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