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Urine Track Infection

What is this?

A UTI is a bacterial infection of the bladder. It is an extremely common disease, with a frequency of at least one occurrence in 40% of women, and 12% of men.


UTIs are caused by the entry of microbes into the urethra and from there into the bladder.

Urinary tract infections are mainly caused by enteric coliform bacteria (e.coli), and less frequently by Protea, Klebsiella, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, and fungi.

The most common causes are:

  1. Sexual act / Use of spermicide especially in combination with the use of an IUD or condom
  2. Anatomical defects in the urethra - Incomplete emptying of the bladder - Abnormality in the flow from the bladder to the urethra
  3. Low fluid intake
  4. Wrong moves in cleaning after emptying
  5. Sedentariness

UTIs can also be caused in cases of:

  1. Neurolithiasis
  2. Diaper or catheter use especially for periods beyond the week
  3. Diabetes
  4. Nephropathy
  5. Immunosuppression of any etiology (e.g. autoimmune, chemotherapy, psychogenic, etc.)
  6. Prostatic hyperplasia
  7. Menopause (lack of protective estrogen)

The tests that are used in diagnosis - treatment - monitoring are:

General urine test

First immediate assessment for the presence of a urinary tract infection with:

– microscopic examination to identify germs and fungi – white blood cells due to infection – red blood cells

– chemical test to detect substances secreted or produced in urinary tract infections

Urine culture

Diagnostic detection of common microbes and fungi and their first typing/categorization

Antibiogram or antifungal susceptibility testing / sensitivity test

Microbes are cultured along with antibiotics to assess which antibiotic is appropriate to treat the infection

Depending on the difficulty, these extra tests may be used:

  1. Typing a microbe – its precise characterization
  2. Urine cytology to detect possible cellular damage in the bladder that favors bacterial infections
  3. Blood count – CRP to assess immune activation
  4. Chlamydia – VDRL to detect sexually transmitted infections that favor UTIs
  5. Urine sugar – Glycated hemoglobin – Urea – Creatinine to assess the intensity of diabetes involved in microbe growth and kidney function
  6. Stone analysis in cases of stone or sand urination

In repeated - recurring urinary tract infections, additional non-laboratory tests may be required, for the anatomical assessment of the urinary system, such as:

  1. kidney-bladder ultrasound
  2. cystoscopy
  3. pyelography

Information selected - indicative with sources: Interpretation of Diagnostic Tests - J.Wallach and

The choice and explanation of the use of the analysis is the exclusive responsibility of your doctor

Edited by : Ioannis Grattisia Head of Laboratory / MSc Clinical Biochemistry - Molecular Biology

2022 - 2023

Biopathology Diagnostic Laboratory | Microbiological | Molecular | DNA | Ultrasonic | EOPYY – Clinic

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