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Common Screening Conditions Thyroid Disorders


Thyroid gland is the basic gland of metabolic regulation producing :

  • T3 and T4, hormones taken up by all body cells which regulate their metabolic rate.
  • Calcitonin hormone involved in calcium regulation.
Most Common Disorders

Thyroid function disorders are divided in:

  • Hypothyroidism, is the condition with low production of T3 and T4.  Hyporthyroidism symptoms may be a combination of fatigue, drowsiness, cold inconvenience, weight gain, bradycardia, hoarseness, confusion, nervousness, constipation, infertility, muscle stiffness, etc.

The main reasons are:

– Hashimoto desease – autoimmune hypothyroidism (young relative ages – often inherited)

– Atrophic or post-surgical hypothyroidism


  • Hyperthyroidism, is  the condition where glandular hyperfunctions and high a production of T3 and T4. Hyperthyroidism is associated with unexplained weight loss, excessive sweating, fatigue, palpitations and tachycardia – hypertension, nervousness, generalized weakness, poor sleep, tremors in the hands, confusion, diarrhea etc

The main reasons are:

– Graves disease – Autoimmune desease

– Toxic polycystic goiter

– Single toxic adenoma


Thyroid screening tests may include:

  •  T3 (triiodothyronine), free-T3 (free triiodothyronine), T4 (thyroxine), free T4 (free thyroxine)

These are the thyroid hormones that are responsible for the biological effect of the gland’s action.

  • TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)

It is the brain hormone that regulates the thyroid function, the measurement of which derives conclusions  hyper- or hypo- function.

  •  Anti-TPO (anti-thyroid antibodies), anti-TG (anti-thyroglobulin antibodies):

They are the main anti-thyroid auto-antibodies that affect both the function and hormonal performance of the gland as well as the it’s histological integrity. Tests can predict at an early stage, the onset of gland subfunctions and are used in the differential diagnosis of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and Graves’s disease.


Optional Test for thyroid relatevly rare conditions, are :
Tumor Markers

Use in cases where there is evidence of neoplastic disease as well as in further assessment of nodules that increase in size.

  • Thyroglobulin (TG),
  • Calcitonin (CT),
  • CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen)
Autoimmune antibodies
  • TSI Activation Antibodies to TSH


Information selected from :

  • Interpretation of Diagnostic Tests – J.Wallach

The exact choice of tests required, is under the responsibility of your treating physician

Editor: I. Gratsias  Lab Director / Clinical Biochemist

Last Update May 2019

Medical Tests performed with analytical systems and reagents



Thyroid tests do not require specific preparation or a particular diet.

Caution is only needed for people on thyroid medication, since they should not have taken their medication before blood collection unless the doctor indicates otherwise.


Blood sampling can take place at any time of the day (laboratory opening hours 7.30 am – 7.30 pm).


The results are given within day for sampling until 11.00 a.m.

Preliminary check with TSH: € 17.

First level (basic control) with T3, fT4, TSH: 44,25 euro

B ‘level (additional control for Hashimoto’s thyroiditis) with T3, T4, fT4, TSH, anti-TPO, anti-TG: Now in Special offer at 39,60 euro (normal price 110 euros)

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