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Polycystic Ovary Syndrome ​​PCOS

What is this?

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition that affects women and is associated with hormonal disorders. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the main causes of infertility in women, but also a factor in more general gynecological problems. It affects 5-10% of women from adolescence and is the most common gynecological disorder.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome PCOS is a condition that affects women and is associated with hormonal disorders | Check Up Medicus


The criterion for the diagnosis is the combination of at least two of the following:

  1. Overproduction of androgenic hormones
  2. No ovary production
  3. Ultrasound image with ovarian cysts (not a mandatory finding)

It is usually expressed by:

  1. unexpected hair growth on the chest, abdomen and face
  2. unstable – problematic menstrual cycle
  3. pains in the genital area
  4. weight increase (mainly in the abdominal area)
  5. skin disorders
  6. voice change (baritone)
  7. thinning hair, male pattern baldness

Laboratory-wise, it can be seen from an imbalance in multiple hormone levels, with androgen overproduction being the most common.

Early diagnosis and effective treatment in PCOS minimizes the risks of:

  1. infertility
  2. diabetes
  3. hypertension
  4. Obstructive Sleep Apnea
  5. cardiovascular disease
  6. in pregnancy, retrograde pregnancy, preeclampsia
  7. endometrial cancer


The analyzes we carry out are done with a choice, among the hormones:

LH – FSH, LH/FSH hormone ratio: in PCOS it increases from 1:1 to 2:1, up to 3:1 and for many, it is a diagnostic criterion for the disease.

Prolactin (PRL): its elevated levels can be associated with PCOS

Total testosterone (testo): is found elevated in most cases of PCOS.

Dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S): in case of PCOS, an average increase in its price is expected. This test is also used to assess possible adrenal hyperfunction.

Androstenedione (D-4): is tested as an independent androgen, indirectly assessing possible adrenal hyperfunction.

Estrogen (E2): it can be normal or at lower than expected values and its measurement helps us to assess ovarian function.

SHBG (sex-binding protein): in case of PCOS it can be found reduced.

b-chorionic gonadotropin (b-hCG): is measured to check for possible pregnancy, however a disturbing cycle and delays in menstruation are often also symptoms of PCOS.


Additional analyzes can be used to detect complications from PCOS, with the main ones being:

Lipid profile: often found disturbed with low HDL, and high LDL, as well as significant changes in total cholesterol and triglycerides.

Fasting glucose, glucose tolerance test: can show possible dysregulation of carbohydrate metabolism.

Insulin (ins): often is found elevated. Its regulation is necessary because increased insulin levels can lead to glucose tolerance.

In excluding situations with similar indications, the following are useful:

  1. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): ( thyroid disorders )
  2. Cortisol: ( adrenal hyperplasia – Cushing’s)
  3. 17 OH progesterone: (adrenal hyperplasia)
  4. IGF-1: (overproduction of growth hormones – acromegaly)
  5. Carbohydrate antigen 125 / CA 125: ( neoplasia / ovarian inflammation – endometriosis )



A simple blood test is required for laboratory testing.

The blood draw should be done between the 2nd and 5th day of the cycle (if the cycle exists)

No preparation or diet is required. Blood sampling can be done at any time of the day.


Blood sampling can be done at any time of the day (the laboratory's working hours are 7.30 a.m. – 7.30 p.m.).


Results are given within 3 days.


The laboratory tests are prescribed at the EOPYY (except for Anti-Mullerian), with the participation of the examinee as defined by the referral (15%, unless otherwise stated)

The cost with private coverage is:
  1. The package of basic hormonal control with measurement of LH, FSH, PRL, E2, and TESTO costs 87 euros -25% package discount = 62.25 euros.
  2. Anti-Mullerian hormone costs 45 euros.
  3. STD exclusion analysis package with measurement of TSH, Cortisol, IGF-1, 17 OH PRG, CA-125 costs 105 euros -25% package discount = 78.75 euros.

Information selected - indicative with sources: Interpretation of Diagnostic Tests - J.Wallach and

The choice and explanation of the use of the analysis is the exclusive responsibility of your doctor

Edited by : Ioannis Grattisia Head of Laboratory / MSc Clinical Biochemistry - Molecular Biology

2022 - 2023

Biopathology Diagnostic Laboratory | Microbiological | Molecular | DNA | Ultrasonic | EOPYY – Clinic

Diagnostic: Director Biochemist I. Gratsia - Biopathologist I. Katsavochristos / M. Kolokouri - Radiologist S. Alagiannis

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