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What is this?
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition that affects women and is associated with hormonal disorders. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the main causes of infertility in women, but also a factor in more general gynecological problems. It affects 5-10% of women from adolescence and is the most common gynecological disorder.
The criterion for the diagnosis is the combination of at least two of the following:
It is usually expressed by:
Laboratory-wise, it can be seen from an imbalance in multiple hormone levels, with androgen overproduction being the most common.
Early diagnosis and effective treatment in PCOS minimizes the risks of:
The analyzes we carry out are done with a choice, among the hormones:
LH – FSH, LH/FSH hormone ratio: in PCOS it increases from 1:1 to 2:1, up to 3:1 and for many, it is a diagnostic criterion for the disease.
Prolactin (PRL): its elevated levels can be associated with PCOS
Total testosterone (testo): is found elevated in most cases of PCOS.
Dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S): in case of PCOS, an average increase in its price is expected. This test is also used to assess possible adrenal hyperfunction.
Androstenedione (D-4): is tested as an independent androgen, indirectly assessing possible adrenal hyperfunction.
Estrogen (E2): it can be normal or at lower than expected values and its measurement helps us to assess ovarian function.
SHBG (sex-binding protein): in case of PCOS it can be found reduced.
b-chorionic gonadotropin (b-hCG): is measured to check for possible pregnancy, however a disturbing cycle and delays in menstruation are often also symptoms of PCOS.
Additional analyzes can be used to detect complications from PCOS, with the main ones being:
Lipid profile: often found disturbed with low HDL, and high LDL, as well as significant changes in total cholesterol and triglycerides.
Fasting glucose, glucose tolerance test: can show possible dysregulation of carbohydrate metabolism.
Insulin (ins): often is found elevated. Its regulation is necessary because increased insulin levels can lead to glucose tolerance.
In excluding situations with similar indications, the following are useful:
INFORMATION FOR LABORATORY CHECK
A simple blood test is required for laboratory testing.
The blood draw should be done between the 2nd and 5th day of the cycle (if the cycle exists)
No preparation or diet is required. Blood sampling can be done at any time of the day.
Blood sampling can be done at any time of the day (the laboratory's working hours are 7.30 a.m. – 7.30 p.m.).
EXPECTED TIME FOR THE RESULTS
Results are given within 3 days.
The laboratory tests are prescribed at the EOPYY (except for Anti-Mullerian), with the participation of the examinee as defined by the referral (15%, unless otherwise stated)
Information selected - indicative with sources: Interpretation of Diagnostic Tests - J.Wallach and https://labtestsonline.org
The choice and explanation of the use of the analysis is the exclusive responsibility of your doctor
Edited by : Ioannis Grattisia Head of Laboratory / MSc Clinical Biochemistry - Molecular Biology
2022 - 2023
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