It is a condition that affects women and is associated with hormonal disorders. The syndrome of polycystic ovary is one of the main causes of infertility in women, as well as a factor in general gynecological problems. It affects 5-10% of teenage women, and is the most common gynecological disorder.
INDICATIONS – IMPORTANCE
As a diagnostic criterion, a combination of at least two of the following may be used:
- Overgrowth of androgenetic hormones
- No egg production
- Ultrasound with cysts in the pockets (not required)
It is usually expressed by:
- unexpected hair growth on chest, abdomen and face
- unstable – problematic period cycle
- pain in the genital area
- weight gain (mainly in the abdomen)
- skin disorders
- voice alteration (baritone)
- hair loss, male head scalp
Laboratory can be seen from the imbalance in multiple hormonal levels, with the overproduction of androgens more common.
Timely diagnosis and effective COPD treatment minimizes the risk of:
- cardiovascular disease
- in pregnancy, pulmonary pregnancy, preeclampsia
- endometrial cancer
LABORATORY SCREENING TESTS
Laborarory tests may be unclear for a PCOS diagnosis. For screenig a combination of a variaty tests may be used for an overall hormonal assessment witch may be related to PCOS. Depending on the results, a more specific selection of tests may be used to follow up treatment. Among te tests used for diagnosis and follow upa, are :
- LH – FSH hormones ratio : In PCOS increases from the the expected 1: 1 to 2: 1, up to 3: 1 and for many is a diagnostic criterion for the disease.
- Prolactin (PRL) : Elevated levels are offten in PCOS.
- Testosterone total (testo) : Found to be elevated in most cases of PCOS.
- Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S): An average increase in its value is expected. This test is also used for the assessment of possible adrenal hyperfunction.
- Androstenedione (Δ-4): An independent androgen, indirectly assessing the potential adrenal hyperfunction.
- Estrogens (E2): May be found normal or lower than expected, and helps to evaluate the function of the ovaries.
- SHBG (sex-binding protein): May be reduced.
- β-chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG): Used to exclude a pregnancy, as a disturbed cycle and menstrual delays are often symptoms of PCOS.
Additional tests may be used to detect possible complications from the PCOS :
- Lipidemic profile: Oftenly disturbed, with low HDL, high LDL, and with significant changes in total cholesterol and triglycerides.
- Fasting glucose, glucose tolerance test: Moderate high levels can indicate possible poor regulation of carbohydrate metabolism induced by PCOS
- Insulin: Often found to be elevated. Adjustment is necessary because elevated insulin levels can lead to glucose tolerance.
In the exclusion of situations with similar indications, the following tests are also useful:
- Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH): Excludes thyroid disorders
- Cortisol: Excludes adrenal hyperplasia – Cushing’s syndrome
- 17 OH progesterone: Excludes adrenal hyperplasia
- IGF-1: (overgrowth of growth hormones – acromegaly)
- 125 / CA 125 carbohydrate antigen : Excludes neoplasia / ovarian inflammation – endometriosis
Information selected from :
- Interpretation of Diagnostic Tests – J.Wallach
The exact choice of tests required, is under the responsibility of your treating physician
Editor: I. Gratsias Lab Director / Clinical Biochemist
Last Update May 2019
Medical Tests performed with analytical systems and reagents
by SIEMENS-USA & BECMAN COULTER-USA
Laboratory testing requires simple blood sampling and should be done between 2 and 5 days of the cycle (if any)
No preparation or diet is required, and the blood can be taken at any time of the day
TIME OF DELIVERY OF RESULTS
Results are given within 3 days. charges
Basic hormone control package with LH, FSH, PRL, E2, TESTO is 87 EUR – 25% package discount = 62,25 EUR.
Anti-Mullerian Hormone 45 euros.
Package of SMO blockade analyzes with TSH, Cortisol, IGF-1, 17 OH PRG, CA-125 is 105 euro -25% packet discount = 78,75 euro.