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Osteopenia - Osteoporosis

WHAT IS THIS? (Osteopenia - Osteoporosis)

The limited loss of bone mass is called osteopenia and does not have serious consequences.

The increased loss, however, leads to osteoporosis, a pathological condition for the bone tissue and with serious risks for fractures, mainly of the hips, spine, and wrists.

Osteopenia - Osteoporosis | Check Up Medicus | The limited loss of bone mass is called osteopenia and does not have serious consequences.

Bones are a "living organism" that is constantly rebuilt through osteoclasts (a bone-dissolving mechanism) and osteoblasts (a bone-resynthesizing mechanism).

The two mechanisms are in balance, which can be disturbed for many reasons (menopause, genetic type, hormonal disorder, poor diet, smoking, lack of exercise, etc.) and lead to bone loss.


Osteoporosis is more common in menopausal women but is a disease that also occurs in men.

Factors that contribute to osteoporosis are:

  1. Calcium vitamin D deficiency in childhood and adolescence
  2. Corticosteroid injections
  3. Eating disorders (anorexia) – malabsorption problems
  4. Physical inactivity
  5. Smoking - alcohol
  6. Thyroid disorders
  7. Cushings – Rheumatoid arthritis hyperparathyroidism
  8. Congenital inherited factors


The analyzes are intended to detect early the possible increased bone loss that leads to or worsens osteoporosis disease and to detect possible hormonal disorders and deficiencies of elements necessary for bone health so that the appropriate treatment can be given. We recommend that the analyzes be performed on women:

  1. preventively before menopause, especially in those who have parents with osteoporosis problems, so that they can be compared with those that will be done at the beginning of menopause.
  2. with established osteopenia or osteoporosis before the beginning of treatment, so that the effectiveness of the treatment regimen can be evaluated with new measurements after treatment.
The analyzes are:

24-hour urine calcium (Ca-U-24h): Check the rate of calcium excretion, which correlates with the rate of bone loss

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alkaline phosphatase electrophoresis: Screening for possible hyperfunction of bone synthesis (anabolic) mechanisms.

Vitamin D3-25(OH): Participates in the absorption of calcium from the bones. Latest statistics show deficiencies as high as 80% in the general population.

T3 (triiodothyronine), fT4 (free thyroxine), TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone): Check for possible overactive thyroid that increases the rate of bone resorption.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH): Key hormone regulating calcium metabolism produced by the parathyroid glands. A necessary examination in people with thyroidectomy.

FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) and estradiol (E2): their measurement is carried out in women approaching menopause and is a measure of women's hormonal adequacy. In cases of particularly heavy family medical history and with indications of future osteoporosis, these tests can determine the time to start hormone replacement therapy.

Albumen electrophoresis: is performed to check and rule out serious metabolic diseases, which can affect bone metabolism.

CTx (collagen type I C-terminal telopeptide), and NTx (collagen type I N-terminal telopeptide): are metabolites and elements of bone degradation. Measuring them in 2-hour urine shows whether daily bone loss is within normal levels.

Osteocalcin (BGP): by measuring it, we control the rate of bone synthesis, and is an important prognostic indicator of osteoporosis.

24-hour urine cortisol (Cort-U-24h) can reveal possible adrenal hyperfunction, which negatively affects bone health.

The measurement of substances in the 2-hour urine requires the use of a preservative, which can be obtained from our laboratory.

The results for Osteopenia - Osteoporosis are given within 3 working days.

Information selected - indicative with sources: Interpretation of Diagnostic Tests - J.Wallach and

The choice and explanation of the use of the analysis is the exclusive responsibility of your doctor

Edited by : Ioannis Grattisia Head of Laboratory / MSc Clinical Biochemistry - Molecular Biology

2022 - 2023

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