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Menstruation and Fertility - Disorders

Menstruation and Fertility - Disorders

Menstruation & Fertility - Disorders | A simple blood test is required for laboratory testing of anemia and hormonal disorders.

The instability of a woman's cycle can come from many causes, the most common of which are:

  1. Anemias
  2. Hormonal disorders
  3. Infections

These disorders can negatively affect a woman's fertility even in a determinant way.


Ferrum deficiency anemia:

In cases of severe Ferrum deficiency, can be observed great instability in the cycle and even amenorrhoea for a period of time.

The first check-up tests include:

  1. Βlood chart: assessment of possible anemia with hematocrit and hemoglobin measurements
  2. C-reactive protein – CRP: detection of possible inflammation, is evaluated in ferritin measurement
  3. Ferrum -Fe, Ferritin -Ferr: assessment of Ferrum adequacy and Ferrum stores

Hormonal disorders:

  1. LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle stimulating hormone): assessment of the intensity of the stimulating hormones for ovarian function
  2. E2 estradiol: reflects on the functionality of the ovaries in the stimulus of LH – FSH
  3. progesterone (PRG): regulatory hormone for women's cycle responsible for the maturation of the egg and its attachment to the placenta.
  4. Prolactin (PRL): in elevated values, it is associated with polycystic ovary syndrome, a situation, that is mentioned as one of the most important reasons of infertility.
  5. Testosterone, free testosterone (Testo, freeTesto), DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone), DHEA-S (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate), Δ-4 (Δ-4 androstenedione0): natural androgenic hormones, which at high levels interfere the normal cycle, while competing on female hormones.
  6. Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) and Inhibin B: the measurement is recommended in women over 40, in order to be assessed the adequacy of available eggs for maturation and fertilization.
  7. T3 (triiodothyronine), freeT4 (free thyroxine), TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone), anti-TPO (anti-thyroid antibodies), anti-TG (anti-thyroglobulin antibodies): thyroid analyses, which check for a possible gland dysfunction that can deregulate cycle and cause infertility.
  8. CA 125 (cancer antigen 125): ovarian neoplasia marker that detects possible endometriosis (inflammation of the ovaries), which is associated with infertility.

Vaginal cultures: are done to detect infections - parasites that can affect the cycle, and which can even cause infertility if they are left untreated for a long time. These briefs are for detection in :

  1. common aerobic and anaerobic microbes,
  2. sexually transmitted parasites mycoplasma, ureaplasma, chlamydia

In cases where the above tests give normal results in an observed state of infertility, further laboratory testing is required as described on the page "Female Infertility - Hidden Factors"



A simple blood collection is required for laboratory testing of anemia and hormonal disorders.

For a hormonal check-up, the blood collection must be done on the 2nd-5th day of the cycle.

No preparation or diet is required. Blood sampling can be done at any time of the day.

For vaginal culture, fluid collection is required after the 7th day of the cycle


Blood sampling can be done at any time of the day (the laboratory's working hours are 7.30 a.m. – 7.30 p.m.).

The cultural's collection is done at 10.00 am. – 7.30 p.m. after an appointment


The results of blood tests and cultures are given within 3 days.


The tests of the laboratory for hematological-hormonal check (except Anti-Mullerian – Inhibin B) and cultures are prescribed at the EOPYY, with the participation of the examinee as defined by the referral (15%, unless otherwise stated)

The cost of private coverage for:
  1. Basic blood test package …………..
  2. Complete hormonal check…….
  3. Vaginal cultures (complete)…..

Information selected - indicative with sources: Interpretation of Diagnostic Tests - J.Wallach and

The choice and explanation of the use of the analysis is the exclusive responsibility of your doctor

Edited by : Ioannis Grattisia Head of Laboratory / MSc Clinical Biochemistry - Molecular Biology

2022 - 2023

Biopathology Diagnostic Laboratory | Microbiological | Molecular | DNA | Ultrasonic | EOPYY – Clinic

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