It is a set of metabolic disorders, that result from high levels of sugar over a long period of time.
Diabetes is divided into two categories
- Type 1 – appearing at younger age due to loss of insulin production capacity
- Type 2 with a higher age due to insulin resistance. It has a ~9% prediction in the general population, mainly due to obesity – lack of exercise
There is a special also the Pregnancy Diabetes. This certen type of Diabetew is transient, and it does not affect organs or causes metabolic disorders, as it is a short time phenomenon. It is only monitored for the safety of pregnancy and fetus development.
SYMPTOMS – IMPLICATIONS
The main signs of diabetes are
- Polyurea – Polydipsia
- Continuous hunger
Increased levels of sugar have a long-lasting detrimental effect on the entire body’s vascular system. The most serious side effects of inefficiently controlled diabetes are:
- Loss of vision
- Ulcers in the lower extremities
The purpose of the tests used, is to establish the successful regulation of diabetes and avoid any organ damage. The proposed tests are intended only for diabetes I / II follow up. These tests are:
The Basic Check up Panel
Tests is used to detect if diabetes has a negative effect on kidney, liver or body metabolism and if has caused any inflammation.
|Test / Analyte||Description / Detects - Measures|
|Complete Blood Count -||Measurement Hematocrit, Red -White Blood Cells - Platelets and Morphology
Detects Anaemias, Infections - Bone marrow disorders.
Indications of chronic deseases
|Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate||Chronic Inflammations - infections|
|CRP-hs||Accute Inflammations - infections.
Cardiovascular risk factor
|Total Cholesterol||Cardiovascular Risk Factors
Cholesterol Dietary intake
Drug therapy assessment
|Liver Enzyme γ-GT||Liver function test
Hepatitis B/C - drug -alcohol induced - fatty liver - cancer etc
|Liver enzymes ALT & AST|
Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1-c)
This test shows the average levels of sugar for the last 45 days. Based on HbA1c levels, the effectiveness of the treatment of diabetes is evaluated.
24-hour urinary microalbumin (Alb-U-24h)
It tests the kidney health of the diabetic patient, having a particular predictive value for their potential damage due to elevated levels of sugar.
Creatinine clearance (cre – cle)
It is the best measure of effective kidney function with much greater sensitivity to classic urea and creatinine tests.
Electrolytes (Na + / K +)
They are the main salts of the body, the concentration of which is regulated by the kidneys. Diabetic medications that may be combined with other treatments, can achange electrolyte levels significatly, with very serious consequences, especially in cardiac function.
Urine test -Culture
The test additionally evaluates the health of the kidneys, and in particular to rule out possible asymptomatic urinary tract infection. Urinary infections in diabetic individuals are common as the sugar exits in the urine and creates a favorable environment for microbial growth.
OPTIONAL ADDITIONAL BLOOD PREVENTION TESTS
The following tests are proposed based on age, social habits, staff – family medical history
It estimates the average sugar levels in the last 5 days, and it is used :
- in gestational diabetes
- to directly check the effectiveness of change in the treatment regimen
- in cases of hemoglobin types where glycosylated hemoglobin can not be measured
B12 levels are estimateed as a protective agent against diabetes neuropathy.
The following audits are based on criteria – age and staff – family history
- Ultrasound Imgaing upper abdomen
- Triplex Imaging of heart – carotid – lower limbs
Information selected from :
- Interpretation of Diagnostic Tests – J.Wallach
The exact choice of tests required is under the responsibility of your treating physician
Editor: I. Gratsias Lab Director / Clinical Biochemist
Last Update May 2019
Medical Tests performed with analytical systems and reagents
by SIEMENS-USA & BECMAN COULTER-USA
Recommendations -preparation for blood sampling :
- A meal the previous night is mandatory.
- The last meal should be taken up to 11-12 hours before blood sampling.
- The evening meal is preferred to include the least possible animal fats.
- No meal should be taken in the morning. Coffee without sugar and water are free.
For urine collection:
- A sample of the first urination is preferrable
- Prior to urination, a topical wash with plenty of water is recommended, with no use of soap.
- Results are given within day.
- Diabetes follow up panel is at special offer at 79 euro (original price 157 euro)
- Optional tests have an extra charging