Breast carcinomas are the most common form of cancer among women in developed countries. According to recent research involving one in four women, and one in eight with aggressive cancer.
INDICATIONS – IMPORTANCE
Risk factors are :
- Family history with breast carcinomas (mom, sister, aunt)
- Childbirth after 30
- Inhereted mutations in the BRCA1 – BRCA2 genes
Many references also exist for increased risk and in cases of exposure to estrogens (some contraceptives, IVF etc)
Low weight, healthy lifestyle and physical movement may act as a prophylactic to the non-appearance of the disease
A. Biochemical tumour markers
A specific series of antigens produced at some level by normal tissues. In neoplasms benign or malignant, young cells produce these specific antigens at elevated levels due to a higher metabolism rate.
These tests are used as confirmatory to imaging methods, and for monitoring diseases progress.
The most frequent tumour markers used, are :
- Carbohydrate Antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) corresponding to breast
- Carbohydrate Antigen 125 (CA 15-3) corresponding to ovaries
- Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) corresponding to breast and ovary cancer
As additional tumour markes, the following tests can also be used :
- Tissue Polypeptide Antigen (TPA)
- Specific polypeptide antigen (TPS)
- Mummified Cancer Antigen (MCA)
B. Genetic testing
Suitable for breast cancer gene screening tests are:
- Detection of mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, BALB2 genes (mutation c.1100delC) *
- CANCER PLUS 94 gene package for the detection of carcinogenic genes throughout the body
* GENETIC DATA – INFORMATION – MANAGEMENT
- The BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes repair damaged DNA regions (tumor suppressors) to avoid tissue mutations and carinogenesis.
- Abnormal forms of BRCA1 BRCA2 occur in about 10% of breast cancer.
- Mutations in the BRCA1 gene present an overall risk for developing the disease at 80% in ages of up to 90 years.
- Mutations in BRCA1 have also been associated with ovarian cancer with a risk of 55%.
- BRCA2 also participates in its abnormal forms in tumorigenesis, with the cancer risk of 25%.
- Mutations in the BRCA genes have been associated with men with breast and prostate cancer
- Mutations in the BRCA genes have also been associated with pancreatic carcinomas, leukemia and lymphomas.
In the case of high risk individuals (pathogen mutants – mutants) it is recommended, depending on the results, to undergo a genital advisory and rigorous clinical surveillance program with:
- Breast Clinical Examination, from the age of 25 years of age, or annual mammography and / or MRI from the age of 25
- Possible choice to undergo preventive mastectomy taking into account the age of possible diagnosis of breast cancer in the patient’s own or family history
- Possible choice of salpingo-ovariectomy in women who have already become pregnant
It is always important to consult a qualified health professional before doing any genetic testing to make sure you fully understand the conditions being tested and the explanation of the results
Information selected from :
- Neoscreen Laboratories
The exact choice of tests required, is under the responsibility of your treating physician
Editor: I. Gratsias Lab Director / Clinical Biochemist
Last Update May 2019
Tumour Markers performed with analytical systems and reagents
by SIEMENS-USA & BECMAN COULTER-USA
INFORMATION ON LABORATORY TESTS
Laboratory testing requires simple blood sampling. No preparation or diet is required, and the blood can be taken at any time of the day
Blood sampling can take place at any time of the day (laboratory hours from 7.30am to 7.30pm).
DNA stability allows a simple sample transfer for gene testing.
For BRCA 1/2 Gene testing, blood samples (2x 2.5 ml EDTA tubes) can be delivered, with special bio-transfer packages. For any information, please call us.
TIME OF DELIVERY OF RESULTS
The results are given
- CEA, CA 125 CA15-3 within day
- TPS, TPA, MCA within 32 working days
- BRCA 1/2 within month
- TumourMarkers Combo Screening CEA – CA 125 – CA 15-3 at special offer 48 euros (normal price 65 euros)
- TumourMarkers Combo Screening TPA – TPS – MCA at special offer 90 euros (normal price 120 euros)
- Gene screening BRCA 1/2 at 475 euros