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What is this?
Thrombophilia is characterized by the condition in which hematological disorders give the tendency to form clots in any random part of the body.
The formation of clots can be caused individually or when there is a combination of:
Signs of thrombophilia may be considered:
Firstly, the biochemical control of thrombophilia is done with analyzes that directly detect disorders in coagulation, by measuring the corresponding coagulation factors.
Further analysis is done by:
Basic coagulation factors and the basic marker of intravascular inflammation associated with thrombophilia are measured.
Platelets (Plt): they are the cells of the natural mechanism of clot formation and hemostasis. Their increased values, which we often observe in inflammatory processes, are an indication of an increased risk of clot formation.
Prothrombin time (PT – INR): performed as an initial test of blood clotting time in laboratory conditions. If low values are found, that indicate hypercoagulability (INR < 1.00), then we recommend a repeat on another day and possibly additional tests.
Partial thromboplastin time (PTT): performed as a complementary to PT-INR clotting time measurement in laboratory conditions. Prolonged APTT times are associated with autoimmune diseases that cause thrombophilia.
Fibrinogen (Fibr): constitutes the 'raw material' for the normal formation of clots and hemostasis. Elevated levels are associated with increased chances of clot formation. Fibrinogen is increased from inflammatory conditions (and smoking) that cause cardiovascular disease.
D-Dimers: are the degradation products of fibrinogen and clots that have probably been formed recently. Elevated levels generally indicate a present thrombotic state of the body and an increased risk of thromboembolism.
Homocysteine (Hcy): is a marker of intravascular inflammation. High homocysteine values can be caused by vitamin deficiency, smoking, obesity, or genetic factors. It is itself an irritant factor of the vessels and its values are proportional to the possibility of clot formation.
If the picture we have from the first level is not satisfactory (e.g. high APTT), then we look for possible sources of thrombophilia from disorders of the immune system and autoimmune diseases. Basic laboratory tests are:
Proteins S and C (PrS and PrC): reflect the state of the immune system. Their low values indicate possible long-term exhaustion of the immune system (possible long-term autoimmune diseases) and the increased possibility of blood clots.
Lupus anticoagulant (PTT-la): detects the presence of autoimmune lupus, which is an independent risk factor for thrombotic incidents.
Anticardiolipins (αCL IgG, αCL IgM, αCL IgA): are autoantibodies responsible for antiphospholipid syndrome. The specific autoantibodies affect the blood vessels – they activate platelets and give an increased possibility of clot formation.
C Genetic laboratoey testing for thrombophilia
Genetic testing is widely considered as a basic check-up for cardiovascular risk. The analysis is considered necessary in cases of:
We recommend the CVD 20 research gene analysis package. For more information about genetic thrombophilia read the related page
INFORMATION FOR LABORATORY CHECK
A simple blood test is required for laboratory testing.
No preparation or diet is required. Blood sampling can be done at any time of the day.
Blood sampling can be done at any time of the day (the laboratory's working hours are 7.30 am – 7.30 pm).
EXPECTED TIME FOR THE RESULTS
The results are given on the same day for the biochemical testing analyses, between 3 days for the immunological testing analyses, and between 15 days for the gene testing.
According to our latest update, laboratory biochemical and immunological control tests (except αCL IgA ) are prescribed at EOPYY, with the participation of the examinee as the referral defines (15%, unless otherwise stated).
In gene analyses, only the MTHFR gene is prescribed through the EOPYY.
The cost with private coverage of analyzes is structured according to the level of laboratory testing. For reference, this is:
Level A check up: 77 euros (-25% package discount, excluding fibrinogen and homocysteine) = 64 euros
Level B check: 134 euros (-25% package discount) = 100.50 euros
Genetic testing of 20 genes 180 euros. For more information about genetic thrombophilia read the related page
Information selected - indicative with sources: Interpretation of Diagnostic Tests - J.Wallach and https://labtestsonline.org
The choice and explanation of the use of the analysis is the exclusive responsibility of your doctor
Edited by : Ioannis Grattisia Head of Laboratory / MSc Clinical Biochemistry - Molecular Biology
2022 - 2023
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